A pharmaceutical form used for dispersion of the liquids or solids hermetically sealed in special containers (nebulizer). Can be used for topical use or for inhalation.
Marketing Authorisation Holders (MAH)
Before the patent protected medicinal products will be placed on the market, they should pass through verification period and be authorized by the Ministry of Health, aims to ensure the health and the safety of the population. On its positive decision depends the MAHs (Marketing Authorisation Holders) certification.
Also known as “bugiardino” (little liar) is one of the most important documents supplied with the medicine. It’s unknown when the term “bugiardino” was adopted from the popular speech as synonym of the “Package Leaflet”. There is also an idea that it derivates from the fact that not long ago the package leaflets of the medicines were written in obscure language, considered by the patients very technical and difficult to understand. They were addressed mostly to professionals working in the sector, than helped the patients who tried to understand the pharmacological properties of the medicinal product.
The typical package containing tablets, capsules, etc. Made up of the plastic strips with several sections each with a tablet in it. The spread of blister led to a reduction of the accidents, as it’s hard for the children to open them.
The capsule can be define as a «container» for the medicine made of gelatin which disintegrates in the water, it can be hard (hard capsule) or soft (soft capsule). The aim of the capsule is to deliver the well-protected active ingredient directly to its final destination where it will be released (e.g. in the stomach) to avoid the release of substances and possible side-effects.
Also called “transdermal therapeutic systems”. They are multilaminated systems applied to the skin directly by compression as usual patches. There are different types of transdermal patches but all of them have certain things in common: the backing, barrier layer which plays the supportive role and protects the active ingredient from dispersion; an adhesive layer which determines the placement of the patch and keeps it “in situ” while application, and a layer of the medicine as well. They have lots of advantages of not being “invasive” for the patients for being applied to the skin. However there is still a little number of the medicines on the market in the form of transdermal patches.
It’s a pharmaceutical form of a watery or oily solution or suspension sterile intended for application to the eyes. It’s made of selected raw materials and prepared with special precautions so as to ensure the sterility and to avoid the introduction of contaminants and the development of pathogenic micro-organisms.
This term determines the patent’s following to the medical prescriptions and therapy. To achieve the best results of the therapy the patient should follow the prescriptions of dosage and take prescription medicines correctly and properly timed. 30%-50% of patients don’t follow treatment recommendations and it makes therapeutic actions useless.
The most common pharmaceutical solid dosage form, usually taken orally. Tablets are prepared by compression of the medicament and contain starch or lactose as an excipient. They have a compact form which starts to disintegrate in contact with water. There are also tablets covered with one or more different layers (resins, sugar, plasticizers, waxes). These layers are used owing to different motives: to conseal unpleasant smells and tastes, to protect the medicine from light and moisture, to increase their mechanical resistance, tp provide stomach acid resistance or to control the supply time of active ingredient.
All the medicines must be always stored in the original packaging next to the package leaflet. They are usually kept at room temperature, in a dry place and protected from direct light. The best place is a locked container out of the reach of children. Attention: to the moisture (in the bathroom or kitchen), as capsules, tablets, patches etc. may deteriorate at an earlier stage; it’s better to get out a cotton swab that sometimes can be found in pack of tablets (it retains moisture); the medicines kept in the fridge may freeze; in the summertime the temperature of the container with medicines must not exceed 30°.
The circumstance that serves as a reason to withhold a certain medicine or medical treatment or a surgical procedure due to the harm that it would cause the patien.
It is the maintenance or improvement of health via the diagnosis and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings. As well as the work done in providing prevention of human disease and illness.
The expiration date of the medicine is usually indicated on the outer packaging, but it may be written on the primary container as well (on board of the blister pack with the tablets, at the bottom of the tube of crème or unguent, etc.). It’s usually indicated by two figures for month and two or for figures for the year. If there is no day indication in the expiration date it means that you may use the medicine till the end of the month indicated.
Dear doctor letter
The Health Ministery firsthand disseminate to the doctors useful timely update information on the use of medicines and possible adverse reactions. These remedial communications are issued as “Dear doctor lette”, which means that they are directly addressed to the doctors and done by sending by post as well.
Dispensing (of the medicine)
Distribution of a drug in stock to the patients or to their carers according to the prescription, in the case of self-medication or care of another healthcare professional, accompanied by the advice about safe and effective use of the medicinal product.
The quantity (or dose) of the active ingredient presented in one tablet or one capsule, etc. (i.e. in one unit dose). Capsules, tablets or ampoules are monodose pharmaceutical forms, bottle is a multidose packaging. Its strictly not recommended to increase the dose of medicine without previuos consulting with your doctor, as it is potentially harmful to health. It’s wrong that double dose will cure you twice as fast.
All undesirable effects experienced by patients and possibly caused by taking one or more medicines.
High-risk medicines have higher possibility of causing damage to health of the patient, even in case of a different use.
Over-the-counter drugs, also known as “self-medication” or “OTC” (Over The Counter), are the medicines that are sold without a medical prescription. The choice of these medicinal products is up to the citizen according to the information given by a doctor or a pharmacist. But you have to keep in mind that the improper dosing of the medicine can cause side effects and be harmful for your body.
The medicine is defined as expired when its components are subject to chemical changes. The ambient conditions (i.e. temperature, light, moisture) may cause the transformation of an active ingredient of the medicine over time. After expiration date the amount of the active ingredient may be decreased in a varying percentage and it has two possible consequences: the medicine can’t guarantee any therapeutic effect any longer; chemical degradation process may form toxic substance.
It is a Pharmaceutical codex, a kind of pharmaceutical “sacred text”. It consists of: Technical and administrative provisions of the quality control of medicinal products;
Necessary and appropriate provisions which regulate the work of pharmaceutical sector.
The violations of these provisions are qualified as administrative offences, i.e. they are not of a criminal law nature, unless the fact isn’t considered as a criminal act.
Ampoule is a vial made of glass which contains solution of a medicine (or medication as a powder for injection or crystalline powder) protected till the moment of injection (subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous) or distribution as aerosol.
Bottle is a vial made of glass which contains several doses of medication. The medicine can be taken directly from the bottle through the rubber stopper so as not to contaminate the rest of solution.
Also known as “bugiardino” (little liar) is one of the most important documents supplied with the medicine. It’s unknown when the term “bugiardino” was adopted from the popular speech as synonym of the “Package Leaflet”. There is also an idea that it derivates from the fact that not long ago the package leaflets of the medicines were written in obscure language, considered by the patients very technical and difficult to understand. They were addressed mostly to those working in the sector, than helped the patients who tried to understand the pharmacological properties of the medicinal product.
It is a term for indication of the form (or unit doses) of the medicine, more concretely the pharmaceutical forms are:
Ampoules (for injection or for aerosol)
Pharmaceutical formulation, or just formulation, indicates the form the medicine can be taken (for example: aerosol, tablet, ampoule, ointment, etc.). It consists of one or more active ingredients and of excipients.
Are the medicines prepared directly in the pharmace by the pharmacist. There are two types of galenicals: “magistral” (prepared in a pharmacy in accordance with a medical prescription of a doctor) and “officinal” (that, according to the current legislation, are prepared in a multiple form according to the formulations of the “National Galenic Formula Book” of the Italian or European Pharmacopoeia). According to the Europian laws galenicals prepared on the base of the “National Galenic Formula Book” are generic medicines (pharmaceutical products with the same active ingredient whose patents have expired).
Drops are the liquid preparations (solutions or suspensions on the base of water, oil or emulsion). Can be oral, nasal or auricular.
It is a name to indicate morbid events from the very beginning to its latest consequence.
In the international classification of the World Health Organisation diseases are classified according to the ICD-International Classification of Diseases. This is periodically updated. From year to year appear updated versions of the publication.
Insulin pen is used to inject insulin for the treatment of diabetes. It is the latest method of therapy. The name derives from usual pen used for writing, as they look similar. It is used with an insulin cartridge which contains predefined dose of insilin.
Shortages of medicines
It is a situation when an amount of all the interchangable versions of the medicine can’t meet the existing and future demand. Shortages of medicines can be observed in different regions which have problems with production of medicines or problems with the quality of the medicines which has direct influence on patient care.
Is the most common solid dosage form usually taken orally. Pills are prepared by compression of the medicament and contain starch or lactose as an excipient. They have a compact form which starts to to disintegrate in contact with water. There are also tablets covered with one or more different layers (resins, sugar, plasticizers, waxes). This layers are used owing to different motives: to conseal unpleasant smells and tastes, to protect the medicine from light and moisture, to increase their mechanical resistance, tp provide stomach acid resistance or to control the supply time of active ingredient.
In the modern medicine the term “placebo” is used for a harmless substance or treatment with no active therapeutic effect.
Ointment is made of oily and greasy substantions and is intended for external application of active ingredients to the skin.
It’s a number of doses which must be taken by the patient within 24 hours to obtain the desired clinical effect.
Each medicine prescription issued by an authorized doctor.
Active ingredient is a chemical element responsible for the curative effects of the medicine. I.e. it’s a fundamental ingredient, the drug itself . The name of the active ingredient appears at the moment of its scientific discovery and often refers to its chemical characteristics. For example insulin is the best active ingredient for the treatment of diabetes. While the best active ingredient for the flu staff is acetylsalicylic acid; as well as aciclovir for antivirals and ibuprofen for several painkillers. Many medicies with different commercial name may contain the same active ingredient.
The official name of this document is the Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC or SmPC). The SPC contains the basis of information for health professionals to know how to use the specific product safely and effectively: therapeutic indications, posology, contraindications, interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction, undesirable effects etc. It is one of the most important documents as it’s an intrinsic part of the authorization of pharmasuetical. It’s periodically updated and is authorisated by the Ministry of Health. Only professional have access to this document.
It is a liquid pharmaceutical form used for oral administration of the medicines. Syrup has very sweet taste, it has density and viscosity higher than that of pure water. Originally made of two two thirds of sugar and one third of water, today it’s an aqueous solution sweetened by artificial sweeteners (as saccharine or sorbitol) adapting for diabetics as well.
A symptom is a special phenomenon reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease. The symptoms discovered by the doctor are called objective, the symptoms observed by the patient are called subjective. The symptoms help the doctor to determine the diagnosis
Disposal of the medicines past their sell-by-date
Disposal of the medicines past their sell-by-date. The duty of every citizen is to pay attention to the places where the medicines past their sell-by-date must be disposed, because chemical or biological substances must not be scattered into the environment as they may cause pollution. They neither must be thrown in the garbage disposal nor burned since their degradation products can be dangerous because of toxicity. They must be put in special containers for the medicines past their sell-by-date that can be usually found inside or close to the pharmacy.
Solution is a liquid comp?sed of a solid substance (solute) dissolved in a liquid (solvent).
Suspension is a pharmaceutical form where the mix of active ingredients and excipients is dispersed as a powder in a liquid in which the solute particles do not dissolve but get suspended throughout the bulk of the medium.
In this pharmaceutical form the active ingredient is mixed with excipients so that is can be inserted into the rectum (rectal suppository), where it dissolves or melts and exerts local or systemic effects.